Domestic Water Quality and Sanitation in Panglao Island, Bohol, Philippines
A study on water quailty and sanitation is conducted in an urban poor district in Panglao Island, Bohol Province, Philippines. Groundwater is the main domestic water source in the resort Island, where open dug wells and piped-water from deep wells supply the domestic needs of most households. But municipal reports show that from 2000-2003, diarrhea was among the top 10 leading causes of morbidity in the municipality. Household surveys, focused group discussions, infrastructure inspection, and initial field tests showed water quality concerns in the area which include saltwater intrusion and fecal contamination, among others. The aquifer is found to have high level of chlorides (i.e., 990 to 8,550 mg/L and 387 to 8,337 mg/L during wet and dry seasons, respectively) which exceeds WHO threshold value of 250 mg/L. Water sources (wells) in the island are also contaminated in both seasons where 24 out of 26 wells are positive for fecal Coliform. Thus, long term solutions for Panglao Island are necessary to safeguard the health of water users in the island resort. One option is water connection to Bohol mainland and installing a sewerage network with centralized treatment.