Ultrasound-microwave Assisted Extraction (UMAE) of Andrographolide from Sinta (Andrographis paniculata) with its Bioactivity Assessment
Andrographolide (AG) is known to possess some pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-dengue, anti-tumor and anti-tuberculosis. Green extraction techniques such as ultrasound and microwave have shown the effectiveness of extracting high purity AG from Andrographis paniculata or Sinta. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), which operates at non-thermal conditions ,prevents the thermal degradation of AG; while microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) allows an increased extraction yield. This study aimed to determine the effect of sequential ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) in the yield of AG and its bioactivity assessment. The UAE obtained its highest AG yield of 539.24 mg L-1 at 10 minutes sonication time and MAE with 781.65 mg L-1 at 5 minutes irradiation time with 420 W microwave power. The UMAE obtained the highest AG yield of 1,066.49 mg L-1 when sequentially exposed to 10 minutes sonication and 10 min irradiation with a microwave power of 280 W. Cytotoxic activity testing of Sinta extract containing AG from UMAE confirmed a lethal concentration of 50 (LC50) with value at 76.02 mg L-1. Furthermore, it has an intermediate susceptibility to Escherichia coli bacteria but resistant to both Bacillus clausii and Klebsiella spp. highlighting the potential of its valuable medicinal applications.