Ecological Footprint Accounting of Non- Biodegradable Wastes of Angeles City, Philippines: The Anthropogenic Shift to Biodegradables

  • Journal of Environmental Science and Management
  • Jennie Lagman-Bautista School of Business and Accountancy Holy Angel University, Angeles City, Philippines
Keywords: ecological footprint accounting, biodegradable, non-biodegradable, trend analysis, benefit-cost analysis


This study factored the Ecological Footprint Accounting on Municipal Solid Wastes of Angeles City, Philippines using Waste Analysis and Characterization Summary for 2015 with projections subdivided into the solid wastes of Angeleǹos expressed as waste generation per capita, depict the level of waste consumption, quality of urban habitat, and the acceleration on waste disposal based on the population growth rate and diversion rate. The results were quantitatively analyzed using Ecological Footprint Accounting and interpreted in monetary terms through Benefit-Cost Analysis. The major research processes include: Analysis of waste generation per capita; Waste Projections net of targeted diversion on non-biodegradables; Cost Analysis on diverted wastes; and Income Analysis on Recyclables. The waste generation for the next five years will be generated 90% by households; 10% by educational and other institutions. With waste composition of 37% biodegradable, 20% recyclables and 43% non-biodegradable. By the year 2022, the city is expected to generate 159 kg yr-1∙106 with waste mitigation at a decreasing rate of 96.89% despite the population acceleration at 136% or equivalent to 561,000 constituents. Lastly, the five-year Benefit-Cost Analysis yielded a budgetary savings of PhP395M, equivalent to US$ 7.4M or an average municipal annual cost savings of 39%.