Climate Variability, Change and the Impacts on Livelihood Vulnerability of Farming Households in Koronadal, South Cotabato, Philippines

  • Journal of Environmental Science and Management
  • Lorena Sabino Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance, College of Forestry and Natural Resources University of the Philippines Los Baños (CFNR-UPLB), College, Laguna, Philippines
  • Juan Pulhin
  • Josefina Dizon
  • Ma. Victoria Espaldon
  • Rex Victor Cruz
Keywords: climate change, climate variability, livelihood vulnerability


This study examined the changes and variability in temperature and rainfall patterns in the past 31 years (1981-2012) and assessed their impacts on livelihood vulnerability of farming households in the City of Koronadal, South Cotabato, a less studied area in Mindanao located in Southern Philippines. Using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) framework, household vulnerability was assessed using survey data from 265 respondents, complemented with focus group discussion, and field observations from 2013 to 2015. Results showed significant changes in monthly mean minimum (increased by 0.74 C, p <0.01) and mean maximum (decreased by 0.65C, p <0.01) temperature. Rainfall patterns showed a decreasing trend and revealed significant changes in June (p<0.01), August, and December (p<0.05), signifying that climate change and variability took place as manifested by floods, landslides, and drought experienced by farming households. The study confirmed that majority of the farming households had “moderate to high vulnerability” to climate variability and change. As climate change brings new forms of risks, appropriate adaptation strategies are needed to address both current and future vulnerability and require robust vulnerability assessment founded on recent scientific advancement and innovative strategies congruent to this study.