Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Smallholder Farmers Regarding Climate Change and Agroforestry: A Case Study of Farmers in Peñablanca, Cagayan

  • Journal of Environmental Science and Management
  • Regine Joy Evangelista World Agroforestry Centre – Philippines, 2F Khush Hall, IRRI Campus, College, 4031, Laguna, Philippines
  • Amy Christine Cruz
  • Rodel Lasco
Keywords: knowledge, attitude, climate change, agroforestry, smallholder farmers


Climate change threatens to derail the lives and livelihoods of farmers all over the world if appropriate adaptation measures are not put in place. Smallholder farmers, more so those in developing countries like the Philippines, are especially at risk because of inherent socio-economic characteristic and environmental factors limiting their capacity to adapt. One adaptation measure that can potentially benefit smallholder farmers is agroforestry. However limited understanding, incorrect information and a negative mindset could hinder the successful adoption of this practice. This case study of smallholder farmers in Peñablanca, Cagayan, Philippines attempts to explain the farmers’ adaptation practices by analyzing their knowledge and attitudes on climate change and agroforestry. Two sets of surveys, one on adaptation practices (n=600) and one on knowledge and attitudes (n=41) were conducted with smallholder farmers in Peñablanca. Most farmers are aware of the basic concepts of climate change (91%) and agroforestry (84%), specifically of the impacts of climate extremes on their farms and of the benefits of agroforestry. However this may not always translate to correct practice of agroforestry and other adaptation measures. It is recommended that information, education, and communication programs on climate change and agroforestry for farmers should present targeted information on impacts and adaptation in a way that is relatable and understandable to them.