Bacteriological Examination and Physico-chemical Properties of Streams Receiving Industrial Effluents in Rosslyn, Pretoria, South Africa
The reliance on streams and rivers to provide water for agricultural purposes and to some extent- domestic purpose, is still in existence especially in the semi-urban and rural areas. This study investigated the bacteriological load and physicochemical properties of water from streams receiving industrial effluents and a reservoir receiving wastewater from a hospital. Water samples were collected from March to August, 2015 from ten sampling stations and analysis were carried out following standard procedures. The water pH ranged from 6.21 ± 0.03 – 8.22 ± 0.08. Phosphate ranged from 0.0 – 7. 80 ± 0.38 mg L-1. Nitrate ranged from 0.03 ± 0.04 – 209 ± 2.26 mg L-1 while nitrite ranged from 0.00 – 14. 00 ± 0.30 mg L-1. The TSS (total suspended solids) and TDS (total dissolved solids) were in the range 40.0 ± 2 .00 – 58.70 ± 130 mg L-1 and 40 ± 6.0 – 1010 ±45.0 mg L-1 respectively. The bacteriological loads ranged from 4.85 ± 2.0 – 36.5 ± 7.0 cfu 100 ml-1. Sites receiving effluents from industrial and hospital wastes were highly polluted with values obtained for parameters exceeding the standard set by World Health Organizatio (WHO). The shapes of the bacteria examined under the microscope were Coccobacilli, Cocci, Vibrio, Diplococci and Bacilli. Vibrio shaped bacteria was only observed from streams receiving wastewater from the hospital. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate people on the danger of using water from these streams and a proper waste management method should be established at the hospital and the industrial areas.