Identifying Vulnerability Indicators of Rural Freshwater and Sanitation Systems to Climate Change and its Application in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

  • Journal of Environmental Science and Management
  • Ngoc Tuan Le
Keywords: Climate change, rural fresh water and sanitation, vulnerability, exposure, sensitivity, adaptivity


Rural fresh water and sanitation (RFWS) is one of vulnerable sector in the context of climate change (CC). However, vulnerability to CC of RFWS has not yet been assessed in-depth and hardly considered the integrated approach via index method. This study thus aimed to establish vulnerability indicators to CC of RFWS for a comprehensive assessment. By literature review, factors reflecting exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to CC of RFWS were sufficiently and systematically determined. Expert consulting method was then applied to complete the indicator set, consisting of 53 indicators. There were 22 variables reflecting the exposure to temperature, precipitation, storm, flood, riverbank landslide, saltwater intrusion, and drought; 12 sensitivity variables related to population, water supply and waste treatment, and environment; and 19 adaptivity variables mainly based on facilities and human capitals. The feasibility of the indicator set was examined in a coastal area in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam, where the RFWS is a matter of concern and at high risk of CC impacts. Research findings were expected to be an important basis for assessing and proposing measures to cope with CC of RFWS sector.